The blending of nursing and anthropology into an area of specialization within the discipline of nursing

The blending of nursing and anthropology into an area of specialization within the discipline of nursing.

Chapter 1: Theoretical Foundations of Transcultural Nursing

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Transcultural Nursing #1

The blending of nursing and anthropology into an area of specialization within the discipline of nursing

Conceptualized by Dr. Leininger

A formal area of study that uses the concepts of culture and caring

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Transcultural Nursing #2

Transcultural nursing (TCN) is a nursing specialty focused on the comparative study and analysis of cultures and subcultures.

It examines these groups with respect to their:

Caring behavior

Nursing care

Health–illness values and beliefs

Patterns of behavior

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Transcultural Nursing #3

Transcultural nursing’s goal is to:

Develop a scientific and humanistic body of knowledge in order to provide nursing care that is both

Culture specific

Culture universal

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Transcultural Nursing #4

Culture-specific refers to:

Particular values, beliefs, and patterns of behavior that tend to be special or unique to a group and do not tend to be shared with members of other cultures

Culture-universal refers to:

The commonly shared values, norms of behavior, and life patterns that are similarly held among cultures about human behavior and lifestyles

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Question #1

Is the following statement true or false?

Methods, rules, guidelines, and patterns of behavior about food practices can be described as culture-specific.

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Answer to Question #1

True

Rationale: The need for food is a culture-universal.

Culture-specific determines methods, rules, guidelines, and patterns of behavior. For example, items that are considered to be edible; acceptable methods used to prepare and eat meals; rules concerning who eats with whom, the frequency of meals, etc.

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Transcultural Nursing #5

Anthropology:

The study of humans including their:

Origins

Behavior

Social relationships

Physical and mental characteristics

Customs

Development through time and in all places in the world

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Transcultural Nursing #6

Culture (as defined by Leininger) the “learned, shared, and transmitted values, beliefs, norms, and lifeways of a particular group of people that guide thinking, decisions, and actions in a patterned way…

Culture is the blueprint that provides the broadest and most comprehensive means to know, explain, and predict people’s lifeways over time and in different geographic locations.”

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Transcultural Nursing #7

Influences a person’s definition of health and illness

Oftentimes connotes a person’s racial or ethnic background. Culture also encompasses:

Socioeconomic status

Ability or disability

Sexual orientation

Age

Occupation or profession

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Transcultural Nursing #8

Ethnicity

The perception of oneself and a sense of belonging to a particular ethnic group or groups. It can also mean feeling that one does not belong to any group because of multiethnicity.

Currently five classifications; however, some people may identify with more than one ethnicity/race.

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Transcultural Nursing #9

Race

Refers to a group of people who share such genetically transmitted traits as skin color, hair texture, and eye shape or color.

Races are arbitrary classifications that lack definitional clarity; all cultures have their own ways of categorizing or classifying their members.

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Historical and Theoretical Foundations of Transcultural Nursing

Transcultural nursing:

Dr. Madeleine M. Leininger, nurse anthropologist

Initial conception in the 1950s

Formal creation as a specialty and new discipline within the profession in the 1960s−1970s

Nurse scholars have generated a substantial and important body of theoretical, research, and evidence-based knowledge in TCN, which is ongoing.

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Question #2

Is the following statement true or false?

Transcultural nursing has been formally considered a nursing specialty since 2000.

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Answer to Question #2

False

Rationale: Transcultural nursing was formally considered as a specialty and new discipline within the profession in the 1960s and 1970s.

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Leininger’s Contribution to Transcultural Nursing #1

Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality

Focuses on describing, explaining, and predicting nursing similarities and differences focused primarily on human care and caring in human cultures

Sunrise Enabler

Visual representation of the concepts of her theory. Based on the concept of cultural care that guides nursing judgments and activities to provide culturally congruent care

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Leininger’s Sunrise Enabler

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Leininger’s Contribution to Transcultural Nursing #2

Established the Transcultural Nursing Society (TCNS)

TCNS Newsletter

Created the Journal of Transcultural Nursing (JTN) and served as founding editor

Established the first master’s and doctoral programs in nursing with a theoretical and research focus in TCN

Created a new qualitative research method called enthnonursing research to investigate phenomena of interest in TCN

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Question #3

Is the following statement true or false?

Dr. Madeleine M. Leininger authored both conceptual frameworks, the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality and the Sunrise Model.

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Answer to Question #3

True

Rationale: Dr. Madeleine M. Leininger is credited with authoring both of these conceptual frameworks related to transcultural nursing.

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Advancements in Transcultural Nursing #1

Expanded models by nursing scholars:

Giger and Davidhizar Transcultural Assessment Model

Purnell Model for Cultural Competence

Campinha-Bacote Model of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services

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Advancements in Transcultural Nursing #2

The Core Curriculum has been established to support TCN practice with a core base of knowledge.

Used in a variety of practice settings.

Two certifications offered in TCN, basic and advanced.

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Andrews/Boyle Transcultural Interprofessional Practice (TIP) Model #1

A new model, uses the scientific process for delivering culturally congruent, quality care to people from diverse backgrounds across the life span

Facilitates the delivery of nursing and health care consistent with cultural beliefs and practices of clients from diverse backgrounds

Provides a conceptual framework to guide nurses in the delivery of culturally congruent care that is theoretically sound

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TIP Model #2

Components of the model; the context from which people’s health-related values, attitudes, beliefs, and practices emerge:

Interprofessional Health Care Team

Communication

Problem Solving

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TIP Model #3

Interprofessional Health Care Team

Client at its core

May also include: Family and support persons, other healthcare personnel, traditional, folk and religious healers

All providers working together to deliver the highest quality of care

A partnership among client and providers that establishes trust, collaboration, cooperation, and communication

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The blending of nursing and anthropology into an area of specialization within the discipline of nursing