list of Nursing Ethical Principles and Theories in the “Ethical Theories Applied to Nurses Policy Positions” unit of the Course of Study.
C159 Rubric Tips Explaining each section of the Policy Proposal Paper Part A In this section you’ll explain your rationale for the problem and your policy idea. A1- Public Policy Issue This section serves as a brief introduction to your paper. In two or three sentences, describe the Problem you are trying to solve. Then clearly state your policy idea in a single sentence (or two at the most). A1a – Issue Selection In a few sentences, write about why you selected this issue. Why is it a problem for your community, your state, or the nation? A1b – Issue Relevance In a few paragraphs (2 – 4), write about why this issue is important to the public. Why should this issue be addressed as a public policy? Be sure to use at least two citations from academically appropriate literature. “Academically appropriate literature” includes articles from peer-reviewed professional journals, published within the last 5 years. The literature can support Why your issue is a problem, or you can use articles that support the actual policy idea. A1c – Financial Impact In a few sentences, discuss the financial impact of your policy on the healthcare system. In general terms you may discuss what types of things would cost money (and time and effort) and then discuss the positive impact the policy would have on health. For example, if your policy idea is to improve staffing, you can discuss how it would cost money to hire more nurses; however, the positive financial impact, over time, would be: reduced turnover, improved job satisfaction, and better patient outcomes. As a result, money will be saved and reimbursements will increase. A2 – Personal Values In a few sentences, discuss how your own personal/professional values relate to this policy idea. You may write in 1st person language in this section and in other sections that ask you for your personal perspective. A2a – Ethical Principle In about a paragraph, discuss an ethical principle or theory relative to your policy topic. You can find a list of Nursing Ethical Principles and Theories in the “Ethical Theories Applied to Nurses’ Policy Positions” unit of the Course of Study (COS). In this section, there is a link to a handout from the ANA, which identifies and defines nursing Ethical Principles. We suggest you pick one from this list and describe how that nursing ethical principle could apply to your proposed policy. The ANA Ethical Theories and Principles document can also be found here: http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/EthicsStandards/Resources/Ethics-Definitions.pdf Part B: The Top-Down Approach In this section, you’ll discuss your plan for going directly to a Decision Maker and asking them to set a mandate for policy change. B1 – Decision Maker In one sentence, identify the decision maker for the proposed policy. You must write a real name and actual title of the person. The cohort video explains how to determine who your decision maker should be. B1a – Explanation In about a paragraph, briefly summarize why this policy is important (summarize the main points from Part A of your paper). Then, in a sentence or two, explain why you selected your Decision Maker. Be sure to use at least two nursing articles to support why this policy idea is important. Nursing articles include articles published in Nursing journals, or articles published in other professional journals as long as at least one author is a nurse. It’s fine to use references that you used in earlier sections, but you must include at least 2 citations to nursing articles in this section! B2 – Challenges In a few sentences, discuss some of the challenges you think the decision maker may face in trying to get the bill passed into law (or made into a “mandated” policy). These are often objections raised by lobbyists, groups, and members of the public who are opposed to the policy. B3 – Options What choices/options does the Decision Maker have when they hear your proposal? We usually recommend that students try to identify 3 options. The first option is to do nothing. The decision maker has the option of reading your policy proposal and deciding to leave things as they are (the status quo). A second option for the decision maker is to set a different policy. In this case, it might be that the decision maker decides to require some alternative, or part-way, measure. A third option might be to support and pass your policy proposal. Be sure to provide a brief assessment of each option. Why would the option be a good one? Or not? B4 – Course of Action In about a paragraph, discuss the challenges you talked about in B2 and talk about what the decision maker could do to address each of these challenges. For example, if one of the challenges is that the general public and other lawmakers may not understand the health risks and importance of vaccines, you might recommend that your Decision Maker invite the State Epidemiologist to the public hearing to present information about risks of disease and benefit of immunizations. Remember to address each challenge, i.e.: For the challenge of_____________, the decision maker could________________. B5 – Success of the Policy Brief We recommend that you identify successes in both the process and long term outcome of your policy change. Process successes for the Top-down approach happen at each stage of the policy process. For example, if you are trying to get a law passed, your first success is when a legislator agrees to sponsor a bill, the next success is when the bill passes committee hearings, etc. Long Term success describes what happens after your policy is implemented. After your policy passes, what would be different? For example, if we were changing childhood immunization requirements, a long term success would be that: One year after the new immunization law is passed, the incidence of vaccine-preventable illnesses decreases by 20%. Section C: Bottom Up Approach In this part of the paper, you’ll describe your plan for working with a relevant stakeholder group (community group) to educate others about your issue, to advocate for your policy change, and to gain support for the change. C1 – Collaborating Organization In one sentence, identify the organization you would choose to be your partnering organization. C1a – Summary of Expressed Interest In a few sentences, describe how you know this organization would be interested in working with you to build a coalition for the bottom up approach. Do they have information on their website? Printed materials? Have they discussed this issue at conferences? Be sure to cite your source, such as the organization’s website address, monthly newsletter, or personal communications at a meeting. C2 – CBPR Principles CBPR principles are evidence-based principles for group process. Research on community groups has shown that groups which use at least some of these principles (strategies) for working together are most successful in achieving the group’s goals and purpose. List three CBPR principles you could use as you work with your group to advocate for the policy idea. You can find a list of 9 CBPR Principles in your Course of Study: Open the Policy Process unit from the left-hand menu bar, when this section opens, scroll down to the “Apply: Bottom-up Approach” section. There you’ll find a link to Promoting Healthy Public Policy through Community-Based Participatory Research: Ten Case Studies . Pages 7 – 15 provide an overview and introduction to Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR). A list of the 9 CBPR principles can be found at the bottom of page 13. From this list of 9 Principles, you’ll select 3 principles you could use in your work with your selected group. You can find this document directly at: http://depts.washington.edu/ccph/pdf_files/CBPR_final.pdf You can also find out more in an article from the University of Washington at: https://depts.washington.edu/ccph/cbpr/u1/u11.php C2a – Approach and Collaboration In about a paragraph, describe how you would approach the organization you have chosen as your collaborating partner organization. Who would you contact? How would you ask for their support? How will you recruit volunteers from that group to work with you on the policy change? How often do you anticipate meeting with group members? C2b – Goal Alignment In a few sentences, discuss how you know that your partner organization has goals that are similar to the goal of your policy. Have they done work with this before? Is there something in their mission statement that demonstrates goal alignment? Etc. Be sure to cite a source for how you know this information. C2c – Action steps List 3-5 important action steps that you and your partners will take to educate others about the issue, to advocate for your policy, and to gain support from stakeholders. Would you have a town hall meeting? Would you have a sub-committee of your group do some research on the subject? Would you arrange for meetings with other organizations or individuals who may be interested in supporting your idea? C2d – Roles and Responsibilities We recommend identifying 3 – 5 important roles for your group members. It helps to think about what you need the community group to do – then you can identify specific individuals to take on those functions. For example, someone will need to serve as the facilitator of your meetings; you might be the best person to do take on this role since the initial idea is yours. If you have planned a town hall meeting you may want to include a subject matter expert from your partner organization to lead the public session. The important part is to identify what your group needs people to do in order to accomplish your Action Steps, and then identify group members (by position or area of expertise) who have the knowledge, skills, or experience to take on those roles. . C2e – Key Elements In a few sentences, discuss how you would use each of the three CBPR principles as you work with your community group. Provide an example of how your group might use this principle in your work. Then briefly discuss how using the principle will help your group meet its goal. This might look like: The first CBPR principle we selected to use is _______. Our group will use this principle by doing _____________. Using this principle will help us achieve our goals by __________________. C2f – Evaluation In a sentence or two, discuss how you will evaluate each of the action steps. For example, if you hold a town hall meeting, you might count how many people came to the meeting and how many agreed to support your policy idea. A long term success would be evidence of actual change that you expect to see if the policy is adopted. This might be: a decrease in the number of vaccine preventable illnesses, or a decrease in nursing turnover, or a decrease in re-hospitalizations, etc. You just need to identify one indicator for long term success. Section D: Evaluating the Effectiveness of the two Approaches In this section, you’ll discuss the pros and cons of the Top-down approach and of the Bottom-up approach. D1 – Strengths of Each Approach In a few sentences, describe at least 1 or 2 strengths of the Top-down approach (the approach you developed in Part B) and 1 – 2 strengths of the Bottom-up approach (the approach you discussed in Part C). D2 – Challenges of Each Approach Describe at least 1 or 2 challenges (weaknesses/negatives) of the Top-down approach, and 1 or 2 challenges of the Bottom-up approach. D3 – Most Effective Approach In about a paragraph or so, discuss which approach you would recommend, based on your analysis of each approach. Be sure to pick only ONE approach (either Top-down or Bottom-up) to recommend and provide your rationale for why you would recommend it. Double-check your paper for appropriate APA, especially in your citations and references. Be sure to check for spelling and grammatical errors.