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What Are the Most Common Stressors?

What Are the Most Common Stressors?.

The most common stressors involve major changes in a person’s life and everyday issues he or she cannot control. Starting a new job, being fired from a job, moving to accommodate a new career, and retirement might all produce job-related stress. Marital issues, such as separation or divorce, typically produce stressful reactions. Other common stressors include death of a loved one and serious illnesses. Even happy events, like getting married or having a baby, might prove stressful for some people.
Job stress might lead to burnout, that is, a feeling of fatigue that might provoke physical health issues. A person who sees his or her work environment as unfulfilling and carries a negative attitude might suffer from work-related stress. The stressed employee might frequently miss work or become unproductive on the job. In some cases, a person might seek another job to deal with workplace stressors that he or she cannot change. On the other hand, healthy work stress may motivate, challenge, and inspire an employee.
Everyday stressors might stem from agreeing to tasks that cannot be accomplished. Time constraints are a common source of stress for busy individuals, leading to a sense of failure. Mental health experts advise prioritizing tasks and learning to refuse requests that create stress. Taking time each day to relax and do something enjoyable might alleviate tension.
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Stress might become manageable if a person learns to adapt to change. It might mean lowering expectations and becoming more flexible with daily demands. Common stressors may ease when a person seeks help from supportive friends and family members. In cases where no solution to a problem exists, creating distance might help. This tactic might work with an overly critical relative or bad-tempered coworker.
Stressors might appear as temporary or chronic. Moving to a new house might produce stress that resolves after settling in and making new friends. Chronic stressors may involve an illness or injury that changes a person’s lifestyle. When the situation cannot be changed, professional or social support might reduce anxiety.
Proper nutrition and rest often help people cope with stressors that arise in everyday life. Exercise can also prove effective to deal with the problem. Some people find yoga, meditation, or self-hypnosis helpful when stress intrudes on peace of mind. Health experts advise avoiding alcohol, which is a depressant. Caffeine might also contribute to stress because it acts as a stimulant.

What Are the Most Common Stressors?

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What is an Endotoxin Test?

What is an Endotoxin Test?.

An endotoxin test is a lab test to check for the presence of endotoxins like lipopolysaccharide in a sample. Endotoxins are chemical compounds, made primarily by Gram negative bacteria. They can be very dangerous to humans, leading to health conditions like septic shock if they enter the bloodstream. Manufacturers of drugs and medical devices use endotoxin testing in quality control to make sure their products are pure and safe for use. This testing can also be useful for labs concerned about contamination of samples used in research.
The classic endotoxin test relies on a compound found in the blood of horseshoe crabs. This compound causes clotting when endotoxins are present. Manufacturers harvest blood from horseshoe crabs to provide a steady supply for endotoxin test kits. A laboratory technician can run a variety of types of test using this compound to see if there are endotoxins in a sample and to determine their concentrations.
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When medications or devices are contaminated with endotoxins, this can expose patients to risk. People who are already sick may be less able to metabolize the toxin, and could become seriously ill if they take contaminated drugs or use contaminated devices. Manufacturers and other facilities perform regular endotoxin testing to look for signs of contamination. If the endotoxin test reveals a problem, the manufacturer can halt distribution of a lot, or recall it in cases where it is already on the market. The testing takes place on a regular basis along with other quality control measures for safety.
In research laboratories, endotoxin contamination is an ongoing issue. Many samples require treatment to remove endotoxins and an endotoxin test must verify the success of the treatment. People performing research with contaminated samples will not obtain reliable, repeatable, or useful results. In cases where contamination compromises an experiment, it can also be helpful to know more about the nature of the contamination and the source, as this can be useful for avoiding future problems and understanding the results of the experiment.
Many labs offer endotoxin test services to people who only need periodic testing. Other companies maintain their own facilities for testing. In all cases, very precise protocols determine how technicians perform the testing. People must log their activities and provide careful documentation. This allows for audits of testing practices in the event of a problem. In manufacturing facilities, safety inspectors can ask to review these records as part of a routine inspection to make sure the facility is complying with legal requirements.

What is an Endotoxin Test?

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What are the Stages of Lung Cancer Progression?

What are the Stages of Lung Cancer Progression?.

Lung cancer is a devastating illness that is one of the most common forms of cancer. 2010 estimates for lung cancer in the United States alone suggest that 222,520 new cases will occur and 157,300 deaths will be attributed to the disease per year. Understanding the progression of lung cancer is an important part of learning about the disease.
It is important to understand that there are multiple types of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer is often linked to smoking and involves tiny cells that quickly multiply to form large tumors. Non-small cell lung cancer, which makes up most cases, comes in four main types: squamous cell carcinoma, which creates tumors in the bronchial tubes; adenocarcinoma, which affects the mucous glands; bronchioalveolar, which causes air sac tumors; and large cell non-differentiated carcinoma, which tends to attack the exterior surface of the lungs.
In small cell lung cancer progression, there are two main stages. If the tumor exists only in one lung and localized area, it is said to be in the limited stage. Tumors or cancerous cells in both lungs or in other organs is indicative of the extensive stage. Treatment options and prognosis will vary depending on the stage and amount of spreading.
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Most medical experts divide non-small cell lung cancer progression into four distinct stages with several additional sub-stages. In stage one, the tumor is less than 3 centimeters across and has not invaded lymph nodes or other organs. Stage two occurs when cells have reached the lymph nodes, or it has invaded the bronchus or is growing through the lining of the lung. In stage three, the tumor may be larger or have grown into several tumors in one lung lobe. Stage four occurs when the cancer has metastasized and invaded other organs in the body, including the brain or liver.
Analysis of lung cancer progression is usually monitored through regular testing. Some of the tests a doctor may use to check on lung cancer progression include computed topomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imagery (MRI) tests, or bone scans. These can show the level of invasiveness as well as early signs of metastatic growth. Signs of lung cancer progressing can show that treatment is not working and may require a different approach.
Symptoms associated with lung cancer progression include increasing respiratory problems. Pain in the chest, bloody coughs, and shortness of breath are common symptoms. Additionally, patients may be subject to lung infections and pneumonia, and must take special precautions to avoid illness.
There are treatments for lung cancer that can be successful in stopping the disease. Some common methods of attacking the disease include chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. Generally, the earlier the cancer is caught, the more effective the treatment. Doctors may also be able to prescribe medication to alleviate the symptoms associated with lung cancer progression.

What are the Stages of Lung Cancer Progression?

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What is a Risk Factor?

What is a Risk Factor?.

A risk factor is a trait or behavior that increases the likelihood of contracting or developing a disease or other health condition. Health conditions can include physical disease and mental disorders, as well as injury from dangerous behaviors like impaired driving. Some risk factors can be changed through lifestyle choices, while others, such as genetics or gender, cannot. The risk factor has a number of applications in public health, health care, and some industries such as insurance. It is also an important basis for preventive care.
In mental and physical health, the presence of a risk factor can help to guide treatment plans. This may depend on whether it can be changed and how strongly it’s related to the condition. When it is not known exactly how a risk factor affects a certain condition, it may be less useful in treatment. Nevertheless, finding risk factors is an important part of preventing health conditions they are definitely known to cause. One such case is the relationship between smoking and lung cancer.
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One example of how risk factors are used is the Framingham heart score. This checklist helps to determine the risk of heart attack over the next 10 years. Individual risk factors on this list include age, two different cholesterol scores, and blood pressure. These scores are then compared to separate charts for males and females and help estimate heart attack risk. The heart score is the product of a study that was important in developing the idea of the risk factor itself.
Common categories of risk factors include lifestyle decisions, environmental factors, and access to health care. Other schemes exist for labeling different types of risk factors. Sometimes genetics includes family history, or lifestyle choices such as diet and exercise could be considered separately. A different term may be used if a person already has an existing disease that makes getting another one more likely. Risk factors in a category like lifestyle choices can be changed, while those in the genetics or family history categories cannot.
In the language of statistics, a risk factor is a variable that increases the probability that a certain event may happen. They are based on statistical measures that have been collected from historical research or from ongoing studies. Drawing on earlier work done in the field of statistics, researchers began considering risk in the 20th century. This included academic research as well as a great deal done by insurance companies. This was important for guiding insurance companies in the creation of health and life insurance polices, for instance.

What is a Risk Factor?

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What Is Pulmonary Wedge Pressure?

What Is Pulmonary Wedge Pressure?.

Pulmonary wedge pressure (PWP) is both a diagnostic and therapeutic medical tool for taking measurements, using a wedged balloon in a pulmonary catheter and inflated within a pulmonary artery. Upon inflation, the balloon can measure left ventricular end diastolic pressure. The tool can measure distinctive differences between artery and venous pressures, which can possibly be due to arterial venous malformations (AVMs). PWP can be used during surgical procedures and for management of many serious and critical diseases.
Some of the diagnostic uses of pulmonary wedge pressure catheterization are for shock states, valvular disease, pulmonary embolisms, and cardiac tamponade, which is a collection of blood in the pericardium causing compression. It may also be used for diagnoses of severe burns, multi-organ system failures, and idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary edemas that are above certain levels are a life-threatening condition, and through periodic capillary wedge pressure measurements, a doctor can efficaciously tailor use of diuretics. Additionally, the breathing patterns of heart failure patients can be carefully monitored to determine if habitual shallow breathing is exacerbating their conditions, requiring additional treatments to forestall heart failure recurrence.
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Pressures are measured by inserting the balloon-tipped catheter into peripheral veins and through these veins entering into the right atrium of the heart and from there into pulmonary arteries. Measurements of systolic and diastolic pressures there give right atrial pressure readings and as the balloon deflates once more, left atrial pressures are estimated. The catheter, also known as a Swan-ganz catheter, is often guided by a fluoroscope.
Pulmonary wedge pressure measures lung water changes, which can signal pulmonary venoconstrictions in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and hypoxemia. The uses of pulmonary wedge pressure readings of patients undergoing procedures inform doctors in calculations of cardiac output, which points to how much function may be affected by the procedures. The cardiac function and hemodynamic readings of anesthetized patients can instruct an anesthesiologist monitoring patient states when to signal that therapeutic interventions are necessary.
In assessing shock states, pulmonary wedge pressure readings can be taken to determine if tachycardia or hypotension are present, if there are inadequate ventricular fillings, or if a severe depression in cardiac performance has put a patient into a state of cardiogenic shock. In cases of mitral valve leaks, often caused by congenital heart conditions or rheumatic fever damages to the mitral valve, the PWP can observe waveforms that signal ruptured papillary muscles. In cases of septic shock, which is the most common form of intensive care unit (ICU) deaths in the United States, a PWP reading can detect the low filling pressures that inform of profound peripheral vasodilations that rob organs of blood.

What Is Pulmonary Wedge Pressure?

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What is Sadistic Personality Disorder?

What is Sadistic Personality Disorder?.

Sadistic personality disorder is a type of personality disorder that refers to actions, attitudes, and behaviors exhibited by a person that are ultimately intended to cause suffering in others for the amusement of the sadist. There are a number of key features to someone with this type of personality disorder, including the violent establishment of dominance in relationships, enjoyment at the sight of people and animals that are suffering, the elimination of autonomy of those in a relationship with the person, and a fascination with violence and weapons. This disorder was removed from the American Psychological Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) after the third edition.
There are a number of potential indicators of sadistic personality disorder, and many of them must be present for a person to potentially be diagnosed with the disorder. In general, this disorder is marked by an ongoing pattern of aggressive or cruel behavior by a person toward others around him or her. There are many different potential indicators of this type of behavioral pattern, though at least four of these indicators must repeatedly be present for a legitimate diagnosis of sadism.
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According to the DSM-III, or third edition, this disorder is marked by the use of physical violence or cruelty to establish dominance in a relationship, such as in a marriage or with a child. The person will also often humiliate or demean people in public or around others, and the person derives pleasure from such public humiliation. This type of person will typically use unnecessarily harsh punishments to control those he or she has authority over, such as those in a relationship with him or children in his or her care. Someone with sadistic personality disorder will also demonstrate amusement or pleasure in the suffering of others, both people and animals.
Sadistic personality disorder is typically marked by a person who lies, repeatedly or occasionally, for the purpose of causing suffering in others. Someone with this disorder will also usually use violence or intimidation to terrify others into doing what he or she wants. Anyone in a relationship with this type of person will often be restricted in autonomous behavior, such as a spouse who is not allowed to leave the house or a child who cannot play with other children. This type of personality disorder also often manifests through an undue fascination with weapons, violence, and graphic depictions of torture or suffering.
It is also important to note that someone with sadistic personality disorder does not only display such behavior with a single person, but in multiple relationships, and does not use this type of sadism purely for sexual gratification. This disorder was removed from the DSM following the third edition in part to ensure it could not be used as a legal defense for anyone who inflicts suffering on others. Following the removal of this disorder, the diagnosis can still be utilized, but it would fall under the heading of a “personality disorder not otherwise specified” (PDNOS).

What is Sadistic Personality Disorder?

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What is the Connection Between Low Blood Pressure and Fatigue?

What is the Connection Between Low Blood Pressure and Fatigue?.

Low blood pressure and fatigue often occur together and might be a sign of a serious medical condition. In some cases, hypotension, or low blood pressure, might be a direct cause of fatigue. In other cases, they are both symptoms of an underlying condition.
Hypotension occurs when blood pressure dips to an abnormally low level. The ranges of normal blood pressure vary from one individual to another, and no specific threshold defines low blood pressure, but some medical professionals use 90 systolic and 60 diastolic as a general benchmark. When either measurement falls below these markers, further investigation might be necessary.
Chronically low blood pressure is not, however, a cause for concern unless it is coupled with other symptoms. Low blood pressure and fatigue are a signal that there might be a more serious condition. Other common signs include an inability to concentrate, lightheadedness or dizziness, dehydration, depression, blurred vision, nausea, rapid breathing and cold or clammy skin. When any combination of these symptoms are present, a visit to a healthcare professional is recommended.
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Causes of low blood pressure and fatigue range from the trivial to the life-threatening. Orthostatic or postural hypotension is caused by standing too quickly from a reclined position and can result in lightheadedness, blurred vision or possibly fainting. Similarly, prolonged bed rest can cause these symptoms. Dehydration reduces the blood’s volume, which reduces the blood pressure. Eating can draw a significant amount of blood to the stomach, again reducing the volume and pressure of blood in the major vessels.
Another possible cause of low blood pressure and fatigue is pregnancy. During early pregnancy, a woman’s circulatory system extends to nourish the baby. Blood flowing through a longer network causes a reduction in pressure. In the first 24 weeks of pregnancy, blood pressure typically drops by about 10 points, then returns to previous levels after the woman gives birth.
Certain medications lower blood pressure as well. Antidepressants, beta blockers, diuretics, erectile dysfunction drugs and some Parkinson’s disease medications have an effect on blood pressure. Narcotics and alcohol might amplify this effect.
Some causes of hypotension are much more serious. Shock, whether it is caused by blood loss, allergic reaction or septicemia, causes a severe, rapid drop in blood pressure and is life-threatening. Immediate emergency care is required for individuals who are going into shock or suffering severe trauma.
Some medical conditions are less obvious but also can be dangerous. Heart conditions such as bradycardia, an abnormally low heart rate, will circulate blood very slowly, reducing blood pressure. Thyroid conditions and other endocrine problems also can have an impact on blood pressure. Each of these conditions requires medical attention.

What is the Connection Between Low Blood Pressure and Fatigue?

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What are Periungual Warts?

What are Periungual Warts?.

Periungual warts are innocuous growths that form in the vicinity of one’s finger- or toenails. Triggered by exposure to the human papillomavirus (HPV), periungual warts generally form and disappear without treatment. In most cases, the presence of a periungual wart poses a cosmetic issue that leaves the individual feeling uncomfortable or embarrassed. If treatment is necessary, there are several methods available for wart removal, from over-the-counter (OTC) medication to surgery.
Warts caused by the papillomavirus are easily recognizable. A physician will generally evaluate the wart to check for markers that confirm it’s benign. In some cases, if the growth is abnormally shaped or discolored, it may be biopsied to discount other more serious conditions.
The papillomavirus that causes periungual warts is extremely contagious. Not only may the infection spread by direct, interpersonal contact, but inanimate objects handled by an infected individual may also carry the virus. Abrasions and breaks in the skin are primary points where the virus may enter the body. Anyone may contract HPV, but immunosuppressed individuals and children are considered at greatest risk for developing periungual warts following infection exposure.
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Initially, periungual warts present as very small, flesh-toned, raised lesions with a smooth texture. As the warts mature, they adopt a ragged, rough appearance. When positioned close to the nail, the wart can spread underneath, raising the nail. It is common for some warts to cause discomfort, but if periungual warts become too invasive to the nail bed and surrounding tissues, infection can occur.
Depending on the severity of the wart and the types of issues it may be causing, there are a variety of treatment options available. Many OTC wart removal medications contain salicylic acid, which is an effective wart removal agent. It is important to understand that though its use does eliminate the wart, it does not kill the responsible HPV, and wart recurrence is likely. Problematic periungual warts that do not respond to traditional OTC treatment can necessitate removal by a physician.
The most common in-office method for wart removal is freezing, known as cryotherapy, which involves applying liquid nitrogen to the wart. Electrodessication and curettage, which necessitates local anesthetic, may be performed to excise large or clustered periungual warts. Utilizing an electrified needle, the procedure does carry some risk for scarring. Warts that do not respond to treatment may require the expertise of a dermatologist to find other treatment alternatives, including topical and oral medication therapies.

What are Periungual Warts?

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What is a Sestamibi Scan?

What is a Sestamibi Scan?.

A sestamibi scan is a nuclear medicine procedure done for patients with disorders of the parathyroid glands. It is not a diagnostic study or a confirmatory test for the presence of hyperparathyroidism. It is rather done to distinguish or localize the affected gland in a patient already diagnosed with the disease.
Parathyroid glands are four small glands located in the neck and behind the thyroid gland. These glands regulate the level of calcium in the blood for the proper functioning of muscles and nerves. The parathyroid glands normally monitor the amount of calcium circulating in the blood and when the calcium level goes down, the glands release the parathyroid hormones (PTH), which stimulate the bones to produce more calcium.
Hyperparathyroidism is the major disease affecting these glands. It causes over activity of the glands, often resulting in increased blood calcium level. This is mostly due to the presence of a tumor or cancer in one or more of the glands. Symptoms usually present as fatigue, osteoporosis or weakening of the bones, bone pain, irritability, and depression. Affected individuals may also manifest with decrease sexual drive, recurrent headaches, high blood pressure, and kidney stones.
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Endocrinologists are doctors who treat patients with hormone imbalances. They frequently diagnose patients with hyperparathyroidism by doing a thorough physical examination, and with the aid of blood tests and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment may include the use of medications and sometimes, surgery for the removal of the affected gland. When removal of the gland is needed, a sestamibi scan is usually performed before the surgery in order to determine the location of the diseased parathyroid gland.
It generally takes less than three hours to do the sestamibi scan procedure. Twenty minutes prior to the procedure, a patient is sometimes given lemon juice in order to decrease saliva production. During the procedure, a radioactive dye called technecium99 (Tc-99) is injected into the vein of the patient. An overactive parathyroid gland often absorbs this dye, and this can be seen in the images taken during the procedure. Surgeons, doctors who perform operations, can then set a schedule for the removal of the affected gland by using a minimally invasive procedure.
The sestamibi scan is a relatively safe and accurate procedure. Unlike other iodine-based procedures, the Tc-99 sestamibi scan produces no adverse reaction or allergies. After the procedure, the patient does not need to be isolated from other people because the radioactive dye used was very mild.

What is a Sestamibi Scan?

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What is Home Nursing?

What is Home Nursing?.

Home nursing is nursing care which is provided in a home environment, rather than in a medical facility. There are many circumstances in which people require home care, ranging from people who are temporarily incapacitated to people who require long-term nursing care at home. Employment in this field is quite varied, with some nurses working through home nursing agencies, while others are freelancers, hiring themselves out as needed.
The level of care involved in home nursing is tailored to the needs of the patient. Some nurses simply visit the home one or more times a day to perform nursing tasks which cannot be done by other caregivers, or to check on the patient’s well being if no other caregivers are being used. In other cases, home nursing is a live-in position, because the patient requires constant monitoring and care.
Some people choose home nursing because they are strongly opposed to staying in a hospital or similar treatment facility. If a doctor feels that the patient would do just as well or better at home, he or she will allow the patient to go home. In other instances, doctors may actively recommend home care, or family members may express a desire to take care of a patient at home. As long as a patient is stable and at low risk of complications or sudden medical emergencies, at-home nursing can be an excellent care option.
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Home nurses administer medications, assist with physical therapy, and check on surgical sites, supplementary feeding tubes, and medical devices, to make sure that everything is working smoothly. They often help with basic patient care like bathing, assistance with going to the bathroom, and so forth. Home nurses may also escort their patients on trips outside the house, ensuring that someone is available if the patient has a sudden medical need.
For someone with a network of caregivers, home nursing ensures that critical medical procedures are performed properly. Some people also prefer to use a visiting nurse for tasks which they find humiliating or uncomfortable, such as assistance with going to the bathroom. Home nurses also look out for patient welfare, using their medical training to identify cases in which a patient might be better-served by hospital care or more intensive nursing.

What is Home Nursing?

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