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Guide to Dissertation Writing – Introduction

An introduction is the first thing a reader sees when reading your dissertation. It refers to the opening chapter of your project. It should provide a short overview of your work, explain the dissertation’s purpose, and leave a positive impression on the readers. Specifically, a proper dissertation introduction should comprise the scope, motivation, or problem indication; practical and theoretical research relevance; primary objective; current scientific situation; methodology, and keywords. And a brief description of their research design.

An introduction sets the tone for your dissertation, and it is what the reader will use to determine whether he or she continues reading your work. It should be concise, simple, informative, interesting, and engaging. A dissertation introduction has four objectives: one, to introduce your topic to the readers; two, to show the significance of your study; three, to indicate your project’s practical relevance; and four, to introduce relevant materials to catch the readers’ attention.

Detailed and unnecessarily long introductions, incorrect verb tenses, grammatical mistakes, and spelling mistakes are common mistakes that students make when writing their introductions. For more than ten years now, we have provided dissertation writing services to graduate, masters, and Ph.D. students worldwide. By writing quality, original, professional, and outstanding dissertations, we have become the go-to dissertation writing service. We will highlight a general guide that will help you navigate the tricky process of writing a dissertation introduction.

  1. Set the scene

A good introduction should arouse the reader’s curiosity and interest, and it should also provide sufficient and appropriate background information. To set the scene, think about: Why your topic is interesting, the topic’s historical context, the broader topic of the dissertation, and what the reader would want to know to understand the dissertation better. While doing so, remember you do not have to include everything in this introduction. Also, to write it better, approach this from your perspective and the reader’s perspective.

  • Introduce the central debates

You are supposed to put forward some of your dissertation’s most crucial theories and aspects. The reason for this is to bring context to your project. Students often face the challenge of what to include and what to leave out. A way to avoid this dilemma is writing most of your dissertation first and then narrowing down the literature review to form part of the introduction.

  • Phrase the research question and emphasize on its relevance

This is the main part of the introduction. All the other chapters of your dissertation revolve around it. A research question is what your dissertation plans to answer. Research questions should always be simple, precise, and brief. Your research question should always be in tandem with the debates mentioned above and theories.

  • Describe the methods

Methods refer to how you should approach the research question. As with everything else, keep it light on detail. Remember that you have an entire chapter dedicated to looking at your research methodology in detail.

  • Outline your dissertation’s structure

This means that you should briefly tell what the reader expects in each of the subsequent chapters. This is vital since it helps the reader know what to expect, and it helps the introduction chapter smoothly transition to the literature review chapter.

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Since you do not know which information is the most important, it is imperative that you write the introduction last. Therefore, you may want to wait until you are nearly finished with your dissertation to start working on your introduction. You also can write a draft of the introduction first before proceeding with the dissertation. If you choose to follow this route, edit it heavily before submitting your dissertation. Revise your introduction exhaustively! We cannot stress this enough. Take ample time going through your work, and you can give it to your friends, classmates, or our dissertations writing company for proofreading. Although it is very formal, try to keep your introduction interesting, this will keep the reader engrossed in your work. As we have mentioned severally, keep it concise. Remember you have chapters ahead to go into full details.

Dissertation writing is a lengthy, burdensome, and time-consuming process. With students today juggling multiple responsibilities, they may not be able to write their dissertation introductions or their whole dissertations altogether adequately. Please do not panic because we are here to offer you the best dissertation writing services you can get. When we say that we are the best dissertations writing service, we mean it; ask thousands of students we have helped. Our writing service guarantees the following:

  • Zero plagiarism: Plagiarism refers to the act of stealing one’s intellectual property and presenting it as your own. Plagiarism is a severe offense that can lead to failure, suspension, and getting kicked out of your program. When we write your dissertation, we cite and reference all the texts and materials correctly. We also rigorously check for plagiarized material using our sophisticated and up-to-date antiplagiarism software.
  • Timely delivery: We are aware of how crucial deadlines are. That is why it’s our topmost priority to deliver your dissertation on time. To ensure adherence to deadlines, our professional paper writers immediately start working on it once you place an order.
  • Affordability: When you seek paper help from us, you are guaranteed the best services at the best prices. Students have limited budgets, and our professional academic writing services are priced with that in mind.
  • Expertise: Our team of experts includes: researchers, research paper writers, and proofreaders. All highly trained, well-educated, and native English speakers, they will write you a highly customized dissertation introduction that will leave a positive and memorable impression on your professor and readers.
  • Student support: If you have any questions, you can always reach out to our customer support team. They are there 24/7 to assist you in any way that you require.  
  • Originality: Our experts write all dissertations from scratch, and we do not resell them. What you get is yours only. Our research paper writers conduct broad and detailed research before embarking on the writing process leading to an original dissertation rich in content.    

What is Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Neck?

What is Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Neck?.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of cancer that originates in specific cells known as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells typically form the outermost layer of a body surface and are found in organs such as the skin, larynx, which refers to the organ that contains the vocal cords, pharynx, which refers to the entire throat, the oral cavity and cervix. Squamous cell carcinoma of the neck occurs when cancerous cells originate in the epithelial cells found on the organs of the neck, including the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, thyroid and salivary glands.
Researchers have noted a strong link between tobacco and alcohol use and the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma of the neck. When the epithelial cells that make up the surfaces of the neck organs are exposed to these two environmental influences, they are often damaged. Generally, the toxins in these two substances damage the genetic material in the cell. This damage can affect cell reproduction making it impossible for the epithelial cell to reproduce a healthy replica and increasing the likelihood that these cells begin to produce cancerous cells instead.
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Other possible risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma of the neck include exposure to environmental irritants such as cement dust, paint fumes and wood dust. There is also an established connection between the presence of specific forms of human papilloma virus (HPV) known as type 16 and type 18 and the occurrence of neck cancer. In many cases, cancerous tumors in the neck that occur in the presence of the HPV have a better prognosis than those without, although the precise reasons for this are not clear.
Despite the strong relationship between certain environmental factors and squamous cell carcinoma of the neck, there are hereditary factors that play an important role in the likelihood of developing this type of cancer. Research has indicated that the genetic makeup of an individual increases the risk of neck cancer by controlling the way in which the body of each individual is programmed to deal with exposure to dangerous environmental triggers such as alcohol and tobacco. It is therefore most likely that a combination of genetic variability and exposure to environmental factors that puts a person at risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the neck.
There are many different treatment options available. The most cutting edge treatments are those that are geared towards altering the genes. Other options include radiotherapy, where radiation is aimed at killing the cancer cells that make up a tumor, chemotherapy, where drugs are used to kill the cancer, and surgery to remove the cancer from the neck.

What is Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Neck?

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What Is Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tonsil?

What Is Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tonsil?.

Squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil is the most commonly diagnosed head and neck cancer. An estimated 90 percent of tonsil cancers are squamous cell cancers, which basically means that the growths originate on the tonsils’ outermost layer. Anyone at any age can develop this condition, but males over 40 who drink heavily and use tobacco products tend to be most at risk. If the problem is caught early enough, people usually don’t have many complications. Normal cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation are typically required, and the tonsils are usually removed in their entirety, as well. So long as the cancer hasn’t spread, the survival rate is usually quite good. Like most cancers, though, squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil can spread to other skin and organ tissues, and in some cases is fatal. It isn’t always possible to completely prevent this type of cancer, but maintaining a healthy lifestyle and submitting to regular medical check-ups is usually the best way to monitor things and catch problems like this one early on.
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Understanding Squamous Cell Cancers Generally
In general, a carcinoma is a cancerous growth that begins on the outermost layer of tissue. This type of growth can occur almost anywhere; on the skin, on an organ, or even on an individual cell. When it’s specifically a squamous cell carcinoma, though, it occurs on the outermost layer of the skin, known as the epidermis. The tonsils are made of lymphatic tissue that is coated in the same squamous cells as the skin, and as such can be a site for this sort of cancerous growth.
Specific Risk Factors in the Tonsils
Sometimes people are genetically predisposed to developing cancerous growths, on the tonsils or elsewhere, and sometimes the growths also happen as a result of some sort of mutation or defect in the way cells reproduce. This is usually the explanation given when children develop this condition, for instance, or when it strikes despite every precaution.
As with many cancers, though, there are a number of factors that can make developing squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil more likely. These include using tobacco products, not taking proper care of teeth, eating too few vegetables and fruits, and heavy alcohol use over a sustained period of time. Some studies have also suggested that people who have previously contracted the human papillomavirus (HPV) are at increased risk. The cessation of high-risk behaviors, including drinking, smoking, and unprotected sex, may help decrease a person’s risk of this condition, though it does not eliminate it.
Major Symptoms
A persistent sore throat or cough are usually the most common symptoms of this condition. In addition, an earache that will not go away, bleeding from the mouth, a lump in the neck, and difficulty swallowing can be indicators of a larger issue. Of course, all of these symptoms are also associated with a range of other, usually less serious medical issues. Only an evaluation by a medical professional can rule out cancer, however, and as such, anyone who is concerned about pains or aches, particularly those that don’t seem to go away on their own, is usually wise to get a thorough medical workup.
Diagnosis
A diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil usually requires an examination with a lighted scope and a biopsy of the tissue. Computerized tomography (CT) scans, medical resonance images (MRIs), and X-rays can also be helpful tools in the diagnostic process. Not all growths are cancerous, but those that are typically carry the name “malignant.” When a malignancy is confirmed, the next step is staging. This step identifies how far the cancer has advanced and whether it is contained in the throat or has also spread to other organs. Staging determines treatment options.
Treatment Options
Prognosis typically depends on several factors. The patient’s overall health and ability to withstand treatment are important elements, as is the stage of the cancer when discovered and the location and size of the growth. Cancers caught early tend to have a high cure rate, whereas advanced cancers provide the biggest challenge for treatment success. Patients are often urged to maintain treatment plans, join support groups, and learn stress-relieving techniques.
Follow-up care for tonsil cancer includes regular medical check-ups. The physician will check for a re-occurrence and provide support for treatment consequences. This can include prescribing vitamins and nutritional supplements for patients with decreased ability to take in adequate nutrition from food due to the aftereffects of cancer treatment.

What Is Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tonsil?

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What are the Problems Faced by Autistic Adults?

What are the Problems Faced by Autistic Adults?.

Autistic adults face a variety of obstacles, including difficulty forming and maintaining relationships, getting and keeping jobs, and communicating effectively with others. Autism is a type of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) that affects communication skills. Autistic adults may have a mild form of autism, such as Asperger’s, or a more severe form that prevents them from speaking.
People who suffer from Asperger’s Syndrome can hold conversations, but may find it difficult to understand social rules. They usually have a normal or high intelligence level, but poor social skills, which holds them back. Adults with Asperger’s also may have a low frustration level or seem withdrawn from others. Usually, adults with Asperger’s can improve their social skills drastically through specialized training sessions and behavioral therapy.
One challenge that autistic adults face is starting and keeping relationships and friendships. Since autism affects the ability to read faces and emotions, individuals may find it challenging to hold conversations and follow basic forms of social rituals. Many autistic individuals do not hold eye contact for very long, which may be off-putting to neurotypical people. Many autistic people do not have many friends because of their quirks.
Many autistic people also never get married. Romantic relationships are very challenging for those who cannot understand the normal give-and-take of a relationship. Those who are married might have difficulties with communicating to their spouses.
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Another common problem faced by autistic adults is finding and holding down a job. Positions that require a high degree of social interaction typically are not suitable for autistic people. Autistic job applicants usually find the job interview to be quite daunting due to their poor social skills.
Many autistic individuals also have problems with change. They generally dislike change of any kind in their environments or routines. Typical coping mechanisms include shaking, rocking, or hand flapping. Autistic people generally strive for order and routine at all times and may have meltdowns if their regular routines are changed. Their love of routine may be a positive trait in technical job settings, but it generally hinders many aspects of their lives.
Overall, autistic people find social situations to be very difficult. Many of them must take social skills training or special education classes to learn how to function in ordinary society. Behavioral modification programs and medication help some individuals with autism. Adults who received special attention and social skills training at a young age usually have the best outlook.

What are the Problems Faced by Autistic Adults?

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What are the Most Common Hypertension Side Effects?

What are the Most Common Hypertension Side Effects?.

Some of the most common hypertension side effects include headaches, difficulty with coordination and balance, and light-headedness. Vision problems can sometimes manifest as side effects from high blood pressure. In severe hypertension, tremors or shakiness may also occur.
Hypertension side effects can range from mild to severe. Often individuals suffering from hypertension may experience no symptoms at all in the early stages. At the onset of high blood pressure however, the first recognizable sign may be recurrent headaches. This may often be mistaken for stress, although quite often individuals who are experiencing stress may develop hypertension.
Some individuals who have high blood pressure may notice hypertension side effects that affected their vision. Blurred vision or eye fatigue may occur. This may be mistaken for eyestrain in early cases of hypertension. A trained optometrist or ophthalmologist will typically ask for a medical history of hypertension upon examining the eyes, if any changes are seen.
If high blood pressure progresses to a dangerous level, hypertension side effects will become evident in the way of serious complications. If left untreated, hypertension can lead to heart problems. Coronary artery disease is a risk factor and one of the most severe side effects of hypertension. In some cases, the heart may become enlarged. Ultimately, this can lead to total heart failure.
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Hypertension and renal failure is a concern for many patients living with high blood pressure. The kidneys may become irreversibly damaged if hypertension is not diagnosed and properly treated in time. Blood vessels within the kidney itself can become damaged to the point of not being able to filter waste from the body. Non-functioning kidneys can ultimately be fatal as a result of hypertension.
Another serious consequence of untreated hypertension can be a stroke. When the blood vessels within the brain become damaged by ongoing hypertension, the supply of blood to the brain may be compromised. The arterial wall of the brain may become hardened by long-term hypertension and a stroke may occur. Hypertension side effects such as blood clotting within the arteries of the brain is a factor leading to stroke.
Signs of a stroke can include numbness or confusion. The numbness may occur in the facial muscles or limbs, or on one side of the body. The patient may seem confused or lose consciousness.
Hypertension side effects can be prevented if high blood pressure is diagnosed and treated before it has progressed. The best prevention is to monitor one’s blood pressure regularly. Hypertension prognosis will generally depend upon the duration of the condition.

What are the Most Common Hypertension Side Effects?

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What are the Causes of Loose Teeth in Adults?

What are the Causes of Loose Teeth in Adults?.

Loose teeth in adults are most commonly caused by periodontal disease and injury to the teeth and mouth. Periodontal disease is a condition in which tartar buildup and the resulting infections essentially eat away at the bone to which teeth are anchored. This allows them to become looser and shift in the mouth. Mouth injury, such a blow to the face, can loosen teeth. Bruxism, or a condition in which a person grinds his teeth together, will also usually loosen teeth over time.
Dentists measure teeth mobility by pressing on the teeth and attempting to wiggle them to see how far they move. Teeth should feel firm and anchored in place. People in the beginning stages of gum disease might not notice loose teeth right away, but a dentist can usually feel the movement. The first sign of gingivitis people typically notice is slightly receding gums that bleed when brushed. If the disease isn’t treated at this stage, it can progress to periodontitis. This is the more advanced stage of periodontal disease in which the teeth usually start to loosen rapidly.
Root planing, special mouthwashes and regular dental check-ups can often halt both early and later stages of periodontal disease. Some of the loosest teeth, however, may need to be extracted. Measures such as gum flap surgery and jawbone grafts can sometimes save loose teeth once the gum disease is under control.
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A dental injury caused by a blow to the mouth may also be the cause of loose teeth. This type of accidental trauma may actually knock teeth out completely. Today, even extremely loose teeth caused by mouth injury can often be saved by a dentist. If the teeth are only slightly loosened and there is no gum disease present that might interfere with healing, they will often firm back up on their own. If the root of the tooth is knocked completely loose, dental intervention will probably be necessary to save the tooth.
Another common reason for loose teeth is bruxism. Many people grind their teeth together while they sleep, so they have no control over it. A dentist can usually tell if a patient grinds his teeth because of wear and tear where the teeth meet. Special mouth guards can be worn during sleep to prevent this type of damage and take pressure off the teeth. Some dentists will make these guards to fit the patient, though inexpensive guards that can be molded to an individual’s mouth are also available in some stores.

What are the Causes of Loose Teeth in Adults?

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What is Detoxification?

What is Detoxification?.

Detoxification or detox is a process which is designed to rid the body of toxins. There are many different styles and approaches to detoxification, ranging from residential programs for people with substance abuse problems to detoxification cleanses used to promote weight loss. The fundamental underlying assumption to detoxification is that some form of toxin is present in the body, and that eliminating it will promote health and wellness. The precise definition of a “toxin” varies, depending on who you talk to, and this accounts for the diversity of approaches.
It is important to be aware that detoxification programs may not always be able to rid the body of toxins in the sense of substances which cause ill health. Some toxins bioaccumulate, settling in the bones, fat, organs, and muscles, and they will be present in the body until death, regardless as to how many detoxification programs one embarks upon. While there are medical approaches to removing some toxins from the body, many detoxification programs are considered alternative medicine, and they will be of varying effectiveness.
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In medical detoxification, the goal is to get toxins which are causing immediate health problems out of the body. This can be accomplished in a variety of ways, ranging from filtering the blood with dialysis to promoting vomiting to encourage someone to vomit an ingested toxin. Long-term detoxification programs for substance abusers typically focus on helping people through withdrawal symptoms, and providing psychological support as people struggle with addictions and cravings.
In the world of alternative health, detoxification programs or cleanses are often diet-orientated. People may be directed to ingest specific foods, or to fast, consuming limited amounts of liquids for a set period of time to flush substances from the body. The medical community often views these detoxification programs as questionable, because the toxins involved and their effects on the body are usually poorly defined. Some people do appear to benefit from the diet and lifestyle changes associated with detoxification in this sense, but body cleanses can also aggravate serious medical problems, and they should not be undertaken without the advice of a doctor.
Some alternative health detox programs claim that adherents will lose weight on the program. Strictly speaking, this is often true, because radically restricting caloric intake, as usually happens on these programs, will promote weight loss. However, the weight loss is not lasting, and as soon as the adherent goes back to eating normally, the weight will reappear. Temporary fasts can also be very dangerous for people with underlying medical problems.

What is Detoxification?

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What is a Chemical Imbalance?

What is a Chemical Imbalance?.

Chemical imbalances are health issues in which various essential vitamins and minerals are missing from the body, resulting in an improper production of various types of neurotransmitters. When an imbalance of this type takes place, the brain, the nerves, and the various organs of the body may not function within normal limits. Many health care experts from a wide range of disciplines believe that a chemical imbalance is the underlying cause for ailments like depression, anxiety, and other forms of mental disorders.
A chemical imbalance in the brain comes about when the body does not receive an adequate supply of nutrients, or is unable to absorb nutrients properly. When either of these conditions exist, the brain is unable to manufacture neurotransmitters that help trigger the nervous system to communicate efficiently with the various organs in the body. This leads to a general decline in function that can manifest itself in a number of ways, such as mood swings, a loss of appetite, thyroid problems, or the sudden increase in heart rate and a sense of being in danger.
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In order to diagnose a chemical imbalance, many physicians will utilize samples of blood and other body fluids to determine which nutrients are currently lacking in significant amounts. Usually, other tests are used to make sure that there is no type of malignancy or other underlying health issue that is causing various organs to function improperly. If there is no apparent damage to the organs that can account for the health issues, but the blood tests show a lack of nutrients in the bloodstream, there is a good chance all the health woes are due to an imbalance.
Treating a chemical imbalance often requires a combination of several different approaches. In the event of a depression or anxiety chemical imbalance, prescription medications will be administered to either prompt the production of neurotransmitters or compensate for the lack of transmitters in some fashion. This helps to alleviate the chemical imbalance symptoms over time, allowing the physician and the patient to work toward a more permanent solution.
Long-term treatments often include lifestyle changes such as adjusting dietary habits to ensure the body receives adequate nutrition, daily exercise to promote the production of endorphins which help to elevate mood, and using supplements to infuse the body with nutrients that provide the building blocks for neurotransmitters in general. Therapy is also often helpful in treating the underlying cause of the imbalance, especially when stress is involved. Since prolonged periods of stress can undermine the body’s ability to absorb nutrients properly, learning to minimize or more effectively deal with stress is imperative to the recovery process.
Correcting a chemical imbalance is a task that is not accomplished overnight. Depending on the severity of the situation, it may take months or even years to restore the individual to an equitable state of health. Fortunately, modern medicine has made it possible to employ methods that were unheard of a few decades ago, bringing relief to many people who would have suffered with an undetected and therefore untreated imbalance for many years.

What is a Chemical Imbalance?

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What are the Most Common Causes of Eyesight Problems?

What are the Most Common Causes of Eyesight Problems?.

The most common cause of eyesight problems is likely genetics. Some people are simply more prone than others to problems with their eyes. Damage to the eyes, on the other hand, is commonly caused by overuse, trauma, and disease. Depending on the problem, the disorder could be linked to any number of causes, so it is a good idea to figure out the specific components of the eyesight problems before seeking a diagnosis. Once the problem has been identified further, the causes can be more readily identified.
People who are either nearsighted or farsighted often have a family member with the disorder. Nearsightedness, sometimes called myopia, is usually related to family history, but sometimes can be attributed to long-term use of a computer or performing other close-up work. Farsightedness, or hyperopia, is also usually related to family history, but can begin later in life as a result of aging.
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Eyesight problems like glaucoma are usually caused by fluids in the eye failing to drain. This failure to drain is sometimes related to a specific disorder, such as diabetes or tumors, but it is just as often related to old age. Similarly, eyesight problems such as cataracts can be caused by diseases, but are usually an effect of aging. Cataracts are the result of degradation of proteins in the eye, but when these eyesight problems are caused by exposure to ultra-violet light, smoking, or use of steroids, they can occur at a young age as well.
Sometimes eyesight problems can be caused by trauma to the eye. A black eye, for instance, can disrupt vision, as can an eye infection. Sometimes the problem is as simple as flashing or blurry vision. When trauma is severe, sight in the affected eye can be lost completely. It is important to thoroughly investigate any eyesight problems related to trauma because the problem may be in the brain, not specifically in the eye.
In addition to these more serious vision problems, many people experience minor problems with eyesight from very basic causes. Being awake for an excessive amount of time, for example, can cause vision to blur, and dirty or old contact lenses can cause distortions in vision. Allergies often result in dry eyes, as does pregnancy for some people, and sometimes dust or other irritants in the air can cause the eyes to water. Before investigating rarer causes for these very basic, fairly harmless vision problems, it is a good idea to rule out the obvious causes first.

What are the Most Common Causes of Eyesight Problems?

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Two response need – Studypool

Two response need – Studypool. Two response need – Studypool.

I’m studying for my Physics class and need an explanation.

Hi I need to response here for the two post about electrons and work and there is no specific word count!

1) Electron affinity is defined as the change in energy of a neutral atom after an electron is added to the atom to form a negative ion. In other words, the electron affinity is a measure of the attraction between the incoming electron and the nucleus – the stronger the attraction, the probability of addition of electron increases.

Less amount of energy (work) is needed to for the addition of first electron to the neutral atom. But when more number of electrons are added, atom becomes more electron dense space. This small electron dense space repels further coming electrons and the work required to add further electrons increases rapidly.

2) As we know that a neutral conductor has zero potential or zero charges so to add electrons, we have to provide electric supply or source to a neutral conductor. If we had to add these electrons in a neutral conductor physically one by one, then we will need certain amount of energy for adding these electrons. As we all know that electrons are negatively charge particle. There is no charge present in a conductor so we will add first electron easily without any force of repulsion or attraction. When we add second electron in a conductor then there is a force that repels this second electron also known as force of repulsion. Similar charges repel each other and require high potential energy to enter in the conductor. Same process will occur when we add third and fourth electron. By adding more electrons, the conductor will be negatively charged and has more force of repulsion for the third and fourth electron. Thus, we will need greater potential energy than the force of repulsion to add these electrons in the conductor. For adding the fifth electron we will need more high energy as 4 electrons are present in a conductor and the force of repulsion will be higher for the fifth electron.

Two response need – Studypool

Two response need – Studypool

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What Causes Teeth Clenching at Night?

What Causes Teeth Clenching at Night?.

Teeth clenching at night typically occurs as part of a condition known as sleep bruxism. Sleep bruxism involves teeth grinding and teeth clenching while sleeping. The condition can be primary, when it arises on its own, or secondary, where it results from an existing medical problem. Although the precise cause of bruxism and teeth clenching at night is not known, the disorder is thought to be associated with increased stress and is more frequently found in aggressive, competitive personality types. The use of certain drugs, such as antidepressants, may be a cause, as may sleep disorders, Parkinson’s disease, and misaligned teeth.
As well as being associated with the use of legal drugs, such as antidepressants, teeth clenching in sleep is also related to the use of illegal drugs, such as ecstasy and cocaine. Heavy use of caffeine, alcohol or tobacco may also make bruxism and tooth clenching more likely. In cases where the degree of teeth grinding and teeth clenching at night is relatively mild, using any of these substances could make the problem more serious.
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A number of sleep disorders are connected with clenching teeth and bruxism. Research has shown that most episodes of bruxism occur clustered together and seem to occur in response to what are known as arousals, where a person wakes briefly. In the disorder called obstructive sleep apnea, or OSA, arousals result from long pauses in breathing. These periods when breathing stops tend to be followed by teeth grinding and clenching, along with snorting or mumbling. Out of all the sleep disorders, OSA is the one which is most frequently associated with grinding and teeth clenching at night.
Depression and anxiety are often connected with bruxism. Many sufferers notice that episodes of teeth grinding and teeth clenching at night coincide with periods of increased worry and stress. A tendency to repress feelings of anger is another possible cause, and people with forceful, perfectionist, or compulsive personality traits may be more at risk.
The consequences of bruxism depend on the severity of the condition. Generally, the teeth become worn and damaged over time. Both fillings and teeth may break, and jaw pain and headaches may occur. Loss of the protective enamel from the teeth can lead to them becoming sensitive and painful. The movement of the jaw may be affected and the jaw muscles may become enlarged.
Bruxism treatment involves finding ways to minimize teeth grinding and clenching. Possible therapies include reducing stress and learning relaxation techniques. Biofeedback and hypnosis can be beneficial. Misaligned teeth may need to be corrected, and a splint or night guard may be worn over the teeth during sleep.

What Causes Teeth Clenching at Night?

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